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Limitations of imagination, effort, knowledge, or time amongst protocol designers

The temptation to claim the "high ground" as a TTP of choice are great. The ambition to become the next Visa or Verisign is a power trip that's hard to refuse. The barriers to actually building a successful TTP business are, however, often severe – the startup costs are substantial, ongoing costs remain high, liability risks are great, and unless there is a substantial "first mover" advantage barriers to entry for competitors are few. Still, if nobody solves the TTP problems in the protocol this can be a lucrative business, and it's easy to envy big winners like Verisign rather than remembering all the now obscure companies that tried but lost. It's also easy to imagine oneself as the successful TTP, and come to advocate the security protocol that requires the TTP, rather than trying harder to actually solve the security problem.

The temptation to claim the "high ground" as a TTP of choice are great.

Entrenched interests. Large numbers of articulate professionals make their living using the skills necessary in TTP organizations. For example, the legions of auditors and lawyers who create and operate traditional control structures and legal protections. They naturally favor security models that assume they must step in and implement the real security. In new areas like e-commerce they favor new business models based on TTPs (e.g. Application Service Providers) rather than taking the time to learn new practices that may threaten their old skills.

Entrenched interests.

Mental transaction costs. Trust, like taste , is a subjective judgment . Making such judgement requires mental effort. A third party with a good reputation, and that is actually trustworthy, can save its customers from having to do so much research or bear other costs associated with making these judgments. However, entities that claim to be trusted but end up not being trustworthy impose costs not only of a direct nature, when they breach the trust, but increase the general cost of trying to choose between trustworthy and treacherous trusted third parties.

Mental transaction costs.

For most of human history the dominant form of property has been personal property. The functionality of personal property has not under normal conditions ever depended on trusted third parties. Security properties of simple goods could be verified at sale or first use, and there was no need for continued interaction with the manufacturer or other third parties (other than on occasion repair personel after exceptional use and on a voluntary and temporary basis). Property rights for many kinds of chattel (portable property) were only minimally dependent on third parties – the only problem where TTPs were neededwas to defend against the depredations of other third parties. The main security property of personal chattel was often not other TTPs as protectors but rather its portability and intimacy.

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Policy Forum Biodiversity and Ecosystems
Assessing nature's contributions to people

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19 Jan 2018: Vol. 359, Issue 6373, pp. 270-272 DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8826
Sandra Díaz
A complete listing of affiliations is provided in the supplementary materials.
Unai Pascual
Marie Stenseke
Berta Martín-López
Robert T. Watson
Zsolt Molnár
Rosemary Hill
Kai M. A. Chan
Ivar A. Baste
Kate A. Brauman
Stephen Polasky
Andrew Church
Mark Lonsdale
Anne Larigauderie
Paul W. Leadley
Alexander P. E. van Oudenhoven
Felice van der Plaat
Matthias Schröter
Sandra Lavorel
Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas
Elena Bukvareva
Kirsten Davies
Sebsebe Demissew
Gunay Erpul
Pierre Failler
Carlos A. Guerra
Chad L. Hewitt
Hans Keune
Sarah Lindley
Yoshihisa Shirayama

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Summary

A major challenge today and into the future is to maintain or enhance beneficial contributions of nature to a good quality of life for all people. This is among the key motivations of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), a joint global effort by governments, academia, and civil society to assess and promote knowledge of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystems and their contribution to human societies in order to inform policy formulation. One of the more recent key elements of the IPBES conceptual framework () is the notion of nature's contributions to people (NCP), which builds on the ecosystem service concept popularized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) (). But as we detail below, NCP as defined and put into practice in IPBES differs from earlier work in several important ways. First, the NCP approach recognizes the central and pervasive role that culture plays in defining all links between people and nature. Second, use of NCP elevates, emphasizes, and operationalizes the role of indigenous and local knowledge in understanding nature's contribution to people.

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Vol 359, Issue 637319 January 2018

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Assessing nature's contributions to people

By Sandra Díaz , Unai Pascual , Marie Stenseke , Berta Martín-López , Robert T. Watson , Zsolt Molnár , Rosemary Hill , Kai M. A. Chan , Ivar A. Baste , Kate A. Brauman , Stephen Polasky , Andrew Church , Mark Lonsdale , Anne Larigauderie , Paul W. Leadley , Alexander P. E. van Oudenhoven , Felice van der Plaat , Matthias Schröter , Sandra Lavorel , Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas , Elena Bukvareva , Kirsten Davies , Sebsebe Demissew , Gunay Erpul , Pierre Failler , Carlos A. Guerra , Chad L. Hewitt , Hans Keune , Sarah Lindley , Yoshihisa Shirayama

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